Viticulture

Short-term adaptation of European viticulture to climate change: an overview from the H2020 Clim4Vitis action Original language of the article: English.

Viticulture is exposed and vulnerable to extreme weather and climate change. In Europe, owing to the high socio-economic value of the winemaking sector, the development of adaptation strategies to mitigate climate change impacts will be of foremost relevance for its future sustainability and competitiveness. Some guidelines on feasible short-term adaptation strategies are provided here (Figure 1), collected by the Clim4Vitis action (https://clim4vitis.eu/). Long-term adapation startegies are described in an accompanying technical review.

Short-term adaptation strategies are defined here as adjustments to typical viticulture practices that can be implemented within a growing season or from year to year. Some examples are outlined below, but the list is not exhaustive.

Figure 1. Summary of short-term adaptation options to mitigate climate change impacts on viticulture.

Adapted canopy management

The advancement of phenology stages is one of the most prominent climate change effects, shifting the ripening period to warmer conditions in the summer, and strongly affecting berry composition (e.g., acidity, anthocyanins, aroma compounds and sugar content) and wine typicity1. Appropriate canopy management can delay the development cycle of grapevine within a season to prevent final maturation stages occurring under above-optimum high temperatures or even heat stress. Leaf removal has already proven to be an efficient practice to delay the ripening process by limiting canopy photosynthesis and reducing the ratio of leaf area to fruit weight2. For instance, reducing the canopy area to less than 0.75 m2/kg shortly after fruit set can increase the time from flowering to veraison by approximately 5 days3. Other measures, such as late winter pruning (around budbreak), can also delay the onset of budbreak as compared to the conventional mid-winter pruning, which can result in flowering or veraison delay by up to 5 days4.

Application of sunscreen materials

The application of several sunscreen materials creates inert particle films upon leaves, such as calcium carbonate (CaCO3), kaolin (Al2Si2O5(OH)4) and potassium silicate (K2SiO3), which can improve plant metabolic growth under heat, drought and radiative stresses5. For example, kaolin, a chemically inert white clay, with high reflectivity, has demonstrated its positive effects on leaf cooling and reducing leaf and cluster sunburns, resulting in improved fruit and wine quality under severe summer stress6. The use of kaolin can also enhance grape berry composition in terms of total phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins, leading to improved antioxidant capacities in berries7. Other applications, such as the use of shade nets can also reduce sunlight exposure.

Supplemental irrigation

Grapevine is traditionally grown under rainfed conditions in many EU winemaking regions. However, in some regions (e.g., Mediterranean-type climates), the seasonal precipitation regime rarely fulfils crop water needs (~250 mm) for normal growth and development8. Supplemental irrigation can be essential to cope with frequent water deficits and maintain an expected yield level (economic interest), but additional financial costs and local regulatory issues (e.g., regarding the maintainance of wine typicity) can be important constraints9. Given the increasing scarcity of water resources, this supplemental irrigation should be implemented with water-saving in mind while trying to maximise the benefits. For instance, irrigation should be restrained in early growth stages (e.g., budbreak), but applied at the most sensitive stages, namely the inflorescence development and flower formation process10. To optimise such a strategy, appropriate irrigation systems should be installed. Expensive drip irrigation systems are widely recommended, as they improve water management by precisely determining the amount of water to be allocated to individual vines11. Direct plant water status indicators, such as stem/leaf water potential, trunk diameter or sap flow measurements, can be used to optimise the irrigation scheduling under drip irrigation systems12. A study conducted in Mediterranean climates showed the subsurface drip irrigation system using the threshold of leaf water potential at -0.4 MPa and -0.6 MPa before and after veraison respectively, was useful in improving grapevine water use efficiency and yield, without affecting grape quality13. A detailed assessment of overall benefits and costs (e.g., terrain factors, technological options and catchment-scale water savings) under future climate still needs to be carried out in order to implement an optimised irrigation strategy14.

Soil management

Adequate soil management is an essential adaptation tool for improving the management of vineyard water supply and grapevine vigour, and for preventing soil erosion15 16. Soil tillage can promote soil erosion, particularly in shallow soils on steep terrain, resulting in undesired nitrogen releases and hence adversely affecting grape yield and quality17. Therefore, limiting soil tillage is generally advised. Proper use of cover crop species can also provide good adaptive capacity. In the case of low water availability, cover crop species (e.g., self-reseeding annual legumes) with low competition for water and/or with positive contributions towards soil fertility should be selected18. In contrast, grass cover should be used in intense rainfall seasons to improve soil bearing capacity and limit vine vigour19. In future climates of higher temperatures and enhanced evapotranspiration, the application of organic or synthetic mulches (e.g., compost, bark or straw) will improve soil water retention capacity by reducing soil evaporation and limiting surface runoff20.

Pest and disease control

Many wine regions may face an increasing risk of pests and diseases under higher temperatures and altered precipitation patterns21. Winegrowers are likely to be able to anticipate the changes in the population densities of already well-established insect pests in their vineyards, but the establishment of novel pests and diseases is also expected to increasingly occur under future climate scenarios22. Possible adaptation measures include vineyard irrigation that can help to limit leafhopper population outbreaks23. However, pest and disease control is a dynamic process that requires continuous monitoring and research investments to better understand the complex underlying mechanisms of each specific situation24. Comprehensive control measures (e.g., combined application of various natural compounds) can be transferred from regions where the risk is effectively controlled25.

Funding: The Clim4Vitis action – “Climate change impact mitigation for European viticulture: knowledge transfer for an integrated approach”, was funded by European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme, under grant agreement nº 810176.

The translation of this article into English was offered to you by Moët Hennessy.

Notes

  • Duchêne, E., Huard, F., & Pieri, P. (2014). Grapevine and climate change: what adaptations of plant material and training systems should we anticipate? Journal International Des Sciences de La Vigne et Du Vin, 59–67.
  • Santos, J. A., Fraga, H., Malheiro, A. C., Moutinho-Pereira, J., Dinis, L. T., Correia, C., Moriondo, M., Leolini, L., Dibari, C., Costafreda-Aumedes, S., Kartschall, T., Menz, C., Molitor, D., Junk, J., Beyer, M., & Schultz, H. R. (2020). A review of the potential climate change impacts and adaptation options for European viticulture. In Applied Sciences (Switzerland). https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093092
  • Neethling, E., Barbeau, G., Tissot, C., Rouan, M., Coq, C. Le, Roux, R. Le, & Quénol, H. (2016). Adapting viticulture to climate change: guidance manual to support winegrowers´ decision-making.
  • Neethling, E., Barbeau, G., Tissot, C., Rouan, M., Coq, C. Le, Roux, R. Le, & Quénol, H. (2016). Adapting viticulture to climate change: guidance manual to support winegrowers´ decision-making.
  • Santos, J. A., Fraga, H., Malheiro, A. C., Moutinho-Pereira, J., Dinis, L. T., Correia, C., Moriondo, M., Leolini, L., Dibari, C., Costafreda-Aumedes, S., Kartschall, T., Menz, C., Molitor, D., Junk, J., Beyer, M., & Schultz, H. R. (2020). A review of the potential climate change impacts and adaptation options for European viticulture. In Applied Sciences (Switzerland). https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093092
  • Dinis, L. T., Bernardo, S., Conde, A., Pimentel, D., Ferreira, H., Félix, L., Gerós, H., Correia, C. M., & Moutinho-Pereira, J. (2016). Kaolin exogenous application boosts antioxidant capacity and phenolic content in berries and leaves of grapevine under summer stress. Journal of Plant Physiology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2015.12.005
  • Dinis, L. T., Bernardo, S., Conde, A., Pimentel, D., Ferreira, H., Félix, L., Gerós, H., Correia, C. M., & Moutinho-Pereira, J. (2016). Kaolin exogenous application boosts antioxidant capacity and phenolic content in berries and leaves of grapevine under summer stress. Journal of Plant Physiology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2015.12.005
  • Neethling, E., Barbeau, G., Tissot, C., Rouan, M., Coq, C. Le, Roux, R. Le, & Quénol, H. (2016). Adapting viticulture to climate change: guidance manual to support winegrowers´ decision-making.
  • Duchêne, E., Huard, F., & Pieri, P. (2014). Grapevine and climate change: what adaptations of plant material and training systems should we anticipate? Journal International Des Sciences de La Vigne et Du Vin, 59–67.
  • Duchêne, E., Huard, F., & Pieri, P. (2014). Grapevine and climate change: what adaptations of plant material and training systems should we anticipate? Journal International Des Sciences de La Vigne et Du Vin, 59–67.
  • Pisciotta, A., Di Lorenzo, R., Santalucia, G., & Barbagallo, M. G. (2018). Response of grapevine (Cabernet Sauvignon cv) to above ground and subsurface drip irrigation under arid conditions. Agricultural Water Management, 197, 122–131. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2017.11.013
  • Santos, J. A., Fraga, H., Malheiro, A. C., Moutinho-Pereira, J., Dinis, L. T., Correia, C., Moriondo, M., Leolini, L., Dibari, C., Costafreda-Aumedes, S., Kartschall, T., Menz, C., Molitor, D., Junk, J., Beyer, M., & Schultz, H. R. (2020). A review of the potential climate change impacts and adaptation options for European viticulture. In Applied Sciences (Switzerland). https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093092
  • Pisciotta, A., Di Lorenzo, R., Santalucia, G., & Barbagallo, M. G. (2018). Response of grapevine (Cabernet Sauvignon cv) to above ground and subsurface drip irrigation under arid conditions. Agricultural Water Management, 197, 122–131. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2017.11.013
  • Santos, J. A., Fraga, H., Malheiro, A. C., Moutinho-Pereira, J., Dinis, L. T., Correia, C., Moriondo, M., Leolini, L., Dibari, C., Costafreda-Aumedes, S., Kartschall, T., Menz, C., Molitor, D., Junk, J., Beyer, M., & Schultz, H. R. (2020). A review of the potential climate change impacts and adaptation options for European viticulture. In Applied Sciences (Switzerland). https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093092
  • Neethling, E., Barbeau, G., Tissot, C., Rouan, M., Coq, C. Le, Roux, R. Le, & Quénol, H. (2016). Adapting viticulture to climate change: guidance manual to support winegrowers´ decision-making.
  • Santos, J. A., Fraga, H., Malheiro, A. C., Moutinho-Pereira, J., Dinis, L. T., Correia, C., Moriondo, M., Leolini, L., Dibari, C., Costafreda-Aumedes, S., Kartschall, T., Menz, C., Molitor, D., Junk, J., Beyer, M., & Schultz, H. R. (2020). A review of the potential climate change impacts and adaptation options for European viticulture. In Applied Sciences (Switzerland). https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093092
  • Santos, J. A., Fraga, H., Malheiro, A. C., Moutinho-Pereira, J., Dinis, L. T., Correia, C., Moriondo, M., Leolini, L., Dibari, C., Costafreda-Aumedes, S., Kartschall, T., Menz, C., Molitor, D., Junk, J., Beyer, M., & Schultz, H. R. (2020). A review of the potential climate change impacts and adaptation options for European viticulture. In Applied Sciences (Switzerland). https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093092
  • Uliarte, E. M., Schultz, H. R., Frings, C., Pfister, M., Parera, C. A., & del Monte, R. F. (2013). Seasonal dynamics of CO2 balance and water consumption of C3 and C4-type cover crops compared to bare soil in a suitability study for their use in vineyards in Germany and Argentina. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2013.06.019
  • Neethling, E., Barbeau, G., Tissot, C., Rouan, M., Coq, C. Le, Roux, R. Le, & Quénol, H. (2016). Adapting viticulture to climate change: guidance manual to support winegrowers´ decision-making.
  • Neethling, E., Barbeau, G., Tissot, C., Rouan, M., Coq, C. Le, Roux, R. Le, & Quénol, H. (2016). Adapting viticulture to climate change: guidance manual to support winegrowers´ decision-making.
  • Santos, J. A., Fraga, H., Malheiro, A. C., Moutinho-Pereira, J., Dinis, L. T., Correia, C., Moriondo, M., Leolini, L., Dibari, C., Costafreda-Aumedes, S., Kartschall, T., Menz, C., Molitor, D., Junk, J., Beyer, M., & Schultz, H. R. (2020). A review of the potential climate change impacts and adaptation options for European viticulture. In Applied Sciences (Switzerland). https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093092
  • Reineke, A., & Thiéry, D. (2016). Grapevine insect pests and their natural enemies in the age of global warming. In Journal of Pest Science. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-016-0761-8
  • Reineke, A., & Thiéry, D. (2016). Grapevine insect pests and their natural enemies in the age of global warming. In Journal of Pest Science. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-016-0761-8
  • Reineke, A., & Thiéry, D. (2016). Grapevine insect pests and their natural enemies in the age of global warming. In Journal of Pest Science. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-016-0761-8
  • Santos, J. A., Fraga, H., Malheiro, A. C., Moutinho-Pereira, J., Dinis, L. T., Correia, C., Moriondo, M., Leolini, L., Dibari, C., Costafreda-Aumedes, S., Kartschall, T., Menz, C., Molitor, D., Junk, J., Beyer, M., & Schultz, H. R. (2020). A review of the potential climate change impacts and adaptation options for European viticulture. In Applied Sciences (Switzerland). https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093092

Authors


João A. Santos

jsantos@utad.pt

Affiliation : Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-environmental and Biological Sciences, CITAB, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, UTAD, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal

Country : Portugal


Chenyao Yang

Affiliation : Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-environmental and Biological Sciences, CITAB, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, UTAD, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal

Country : Portugal


Helder Fraga

Affiliation : Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-environmental and Biological Sciences, CITAB, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, UTAD, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal

Country : Portugal


Aureliano C. Malheiro

Affiliation : Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-environmental and Biological Sciences, CITAB, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, UTAD, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal

Country : Portugal


José Moutinho-Pereira

Affiliation : Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-environmental and Biological Sciences, CITAB, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, UTAD, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal

Country : Portugal


Lia-Tânia Dinis

Affiliation : Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-environmental and Biological Sciences, CITAB, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, UTAD, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal

Country : Portugal


Carlos Correia

Affiliation : Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-environmental and Biological Sciences, CITAB, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, UTAD, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal

Country : Portugal


Marco Moriondo

Affiliation : Institute of BioEconomy (CNR-IBE), National Research Council of Italy, 50019 Florence, Italy

Country : Italy


Marco Bindi

Affiliation : Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry, University of Florence, UniFi, 50144 Florence

Country : Italy


Luisa Leolini

Affiliation : Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry, University of Florence, UniFi, 50144 Florence

Country : Italy


Camilla Dibari

Affiliation : Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry, University of Florence, UniFi, 50144 Florence

Country : Italy


Sergi Costafreda-Aumedes

Affiliation : Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry, University of Florence, UniFi, 50144 Florence

Country : Italy


Niccolò Bartoloni

Affiliation : Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry, University of Florence, UniFi, 50144 Florence

Country : Italy


Thomas Kartschall

Affiliation : Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, PIK, 14473 Potsdam, Germany

Country : Germany


Christoph Menz

Affiliation : Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, PIK, 14473 Potsdam, Germany

Country : Germany


Daniel Molitor

Affiliation : Environmental Research and Innovation (ERIN) Department, Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST), 4422 Belvaux, Luxembourg

Country : Luxembourg


Jürgen Junk

Affiliation : Environmental Research and Innovation (ERIN) Department, Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST), 4422 Belvaux, Luxembourg

Country : Luxembourg


Marco Beyer

Affiliation : Environmental Research and Innovation (ERIN) Department, Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST), 4422 Belvaux, Luxembourg

Country : Luxembourg


Hans R. Schultz

Affiliation : Department of General and Organic Viticulture, Hochschule Geisenheim University, 65366 Geisenheim

Country : Germany

References

  • Duchêne, E., Huard, F., & Pieri, P. (2014). Grapevine and climate change: what adaptations of plant material and training systems should we anticipate? Journal International Des Sciences de La Vigne et Du Vin, 59–67.
  • Santos, J. A., Fraga, H., Malheiro, A. C., Moutinho-Pereira, J., Dinis, L. T., Correia, C., Moriondo, M., Leolini, L., Dibari, C., Costafreda-Aumedes, S., Kartschall, T., Menz, C., Molitor, D., Junk, J., Beyer, M., & Schultz, H. R. (2020). A review of the potential climate change impacts and adaptation options for European viticulture. In Applied Sciences (Switzerland). https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093092
  • Neethling, E., Barbeau, G., Tissot, C., Rouan, M., Coq, C. Le, Roux, R. Le, & Quénol, H. (2016). Adapting viticulture to climate change: guidance manual to support winegrowers´ decision-making.
  • Dinis, L. T., Bernardo, S., Conde, A., Pimentel, D., Ferreira, H., Félix, L., Gerós, H., Correia, C. M., & Moutinho-Pereira, J. (2016). Kaolin exogenous application boosts antioxidant capacity and phenolic content in berries and leaves of grapevine under summer stress. Journal of Plant Physiology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2015.12.005
  • Pisciotta, A., Di Lorenzo, R., Santalucia, G., & Barbagallo, M. G. (2018). Response of grapevine (Cabernet Sauvignon cv) to above ground and subsurface drip irrigation under arid conditions. Agricultural Water Management, 197, 122–131. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2017.11.013
  • Uliarte, E. M., Schultz, H. R., Frings, C., Pfister, M., Parera, C. A., & del Monte, R. F. (2013). Seasonal dynamics of CO2 balance and water consumption of C3 and C4-type cover crops compared to bare soil in a suitability study for their use in vineyards in Germany and Argentina. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2013.06.019
  • Reineke, A., & Thiéry, D. (2016). Grapevine insect pests and their natural enemies in the age of global warming. In Journal of Pest Science. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-016-0761-8

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