Viticulture

Drosophila suzukii, a species to monitor This is a translation of an article originally written in French.

Drosophila suzukii has recently arrived in Northern Hemisphere vineyards and has caused damage to grape, particularly in Europe. Damage to the grapes has been observed, as well as the development of sour rot linked to its presence. Other species of drosophila are also present in the vineyards. This insect has now clearly established itself in the vineyard, requiring the attention of the viticultural and wine industry.

Damage to vines

Drosophila suzukii is a damaging pest during the cluster ripening phase leading to negative effects on grape quality. The insect is a precursor and accelerator of the development of other drosophila species associated with grape sour rot epidemics1 (Figure 1D). This species is the only one of the Drosophilidae that can bore through the thick skin of grape berries2, with or without laying an egg (Figures 1A and 1B). The direct impact of D. suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) on grape is ambiguous due to the low number of emergences observed per cluster3. The potential impact of D. suzukii on different cultivars has been tested as a function of the physiological characteristics of grape berries, such as degree Brix, pH and skin penetration force. In particular, the highest number of eggs was found during the ripening period when the pH increases and berry firmness decreases, whereas sugar content increases, black grape varieties being more affected than white ones4. The variation in susceptibility of grape varieties is mainly explained by the resistance of the berry skin and the chemical properties of the epicuticular waxes in the choice of oviposition5. Other parameters, such as previous damage (Figure 1C), climate, environment and sanitary protection, can have an influence on the intensity of the attack. The direct impact of this pest is therefore limited, with population levels rarely high and also rarely able to generate bunch destruction6. These alterations rarely lead to non-harvesting of the plot. The risk of this disease can increase in years of high susceptibility linked to abiotic favorable conditions and damage resulting from mechanical injury or primary pests7.

Figure 1. Drosophila suzukii damage: A) Perforations without eggs; B) Perforations with eggs; C) Eggs deposited in an injury; D) Development of sour rot (credit: D. BINET & L. DELBAC).

How to recognise this drosophila?

• Adult: General shape of a Drosophilidae, slightly larger in size than Drosophila melanogaster (2.3 to 4 mm). The eyes are red and the body is bright yellow or brown. Each abdominal segment has a continuous black stripe on its posterior side (Figure 2A). The female is larger than the male and has a robust ovipositor with sharp black teeth (Figure 2B). The male can be recognised by the presence of a black spot on the tip of each wing (Figure 2C) and by the two sex combs of 3 to 6 bristles on the first and second tarsi of its forelegs (Figure 2D).

• Egg: Elongated, translucent to milky-white, shiny, less than 1 mm long. It has a pair of long subapical respiratory tubes. The eggs are laid in the pulp of the fruit, with the 2 filaments emerging from the fruit (Figure 1B and 1C).

• Larva: Typical of the larvae of the genus Drosophila, milky white in colour, cylindrical in shape, with black mouthparts and conspicuous spiracles at the rear end of the body. There are 3 larval stages, the larva in the last of which measuring 4 mm.

• Pupa: Cream to brown in colour with two characteristic star-shaped breathing tubes on the anterior part. Metamorphosis occurs inside the fruit or in the soil, with the anterior part clearly visible.

Figure 2. Identification of Drosophila suzukii: A) Abdominal segments; B) Hardened, saw-like ovipositor with strong, dark teeths; C) Wings with dark spot; D) Foreleg with two sex combs (credit: R. Rouzes & L. Delbac).

Geographical distribution

Drosophila suzukii is widely distributed throughout temperate and subtropical Asia8. In the 1980s, it was accidentally introduced to Asia Pacific and then to the North American continent in 2008, when red berries were damaged in California. The pest spread rapidly throughout the West Coast states. Concurrently, D. suzukii joined the drosophila community in Europe. Its presence on the European continent was detected in 20089. Its extremely rapid geographical expansion is linked to the fruits trade and to the adaptation of this species to the temperate climate, which is particularly similar to the one of its area of origin. This invasive species has been observed to spread rapidly in European vineyards10, often with damage to the grape harvest11 12 13 14.

Roles of host plants and link to the landscape

Drosophila suzukii is a polyphagous15 and mobile16 insect that develops well in complex habitats, where it finds food resources that allow it to move from one host plant to another during the growing season. In vineyards, the link between the phenology of D. suzukii and the proportion of semi-natural habitats around the plots has been clearly demonstrated17. Monitoring has shown that at least five plant species (Figure 3) present within a vineyard landscape can serve as host plants for this insect, ensuring temporal continuity of resources during its life cycle18. The role of the Rubus genus is crucial for the seasonal activity of the insect. Areas covered with these blackberry plants create a very favourable environment for its development for several months. The insect also disperses rapidly from cultivated plots to wild habitats to seek shelter from pesticide treatments or to protect itself from unfavourable weather conditions19. Hence, areas of vegetation surrounding the vineyard plays a key role in the epidemiology of drosophila; such spots can be used as a reservoir or possibly as an infestation hot-spot.

Figure 3. Chronological susceptibility of different host plants for the development of Drosophila suzukii in the vineyard. (Sampling = dotted rectangles; Emergences = solid rectangles). From: Delbac et al. 2020, Entomologia Generalis.

Control methods

They are different strategies for managing this pest, which depend on the grape variety being cultivated, the winegrower, type of vineyard and the region. A pest management strategy is based on a combination of preventive methods, supplemented by other methods if necessary20. Prophylactic methods such as leaf removal, weed mowing or shredding, yield limitation and grape sorting are recommended. Monitoring infestations is also a very frequent measure. Indeed, infestation levels depend on the year21 and also vary according to the grape variety22. The detected infestations can be controlled by applying insecticides (neurotoxics) or insect repellents (kaolin)23. Other methods can be used for small, isolated areas, such as mass trapping. With the approach of maturity, the harvest date is sometimes brought forward as a preventive measure, especially for late-maturing varieties, as climatic conditions can favour sour rot or drosophila epidemiology. However, this strategy depends directly on the income obtained from the final product. In addition to these methods, it is necessary to ensure the correct management of harvest waste and compost, which are resources for insect reproduction at the end of the season24.

The authors thank Delphine Binet (Altopictus) for the permission to use the photo in Figure 1B.

Notes

  • Ioriatti, C., Guzzon, R., Anfora, G., … Walton, V. M. (2018). Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) contributes to the development of sour rot in grape. Journal of Economic Entomology, 111(1), 283–292. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/tox292
  • Ioriatti, C., Guzzon, R., Anfora, G., … Walton, V. M. (2018). Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) contributes to the development of sour rot in grape. Journal of Economic Entomology, 111(1), 283–292. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/tox292
  • Weissinger, L., Arand, K., Bieler, E., … Mueller, C. (2021). Physical and chemical traits of grape varieties influence Drosophila suzukii preferences and performance. Frontiers in Plant Science, 12, 664636. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.664636
  • Weissinger, L., Arand, K., Bieler, E., … Mueller, C. (2021). Physical and chemical traits of grape varieties influence Drosophila suzukii preferences and performance. Frontiers in Plant Science, 12, 664636. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.664636
  • Weissinger, L., Arand, K., Bieler, E., … Mueller, C. (2021). Physical and chemical traits of grape varieties influence Drosophila suzukii preferences and performance. Frontiers in Plant Science, 12, 664636. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.664636
  • Delbac, L., Rusch, A., & Thiéry, D. (2020). Temporal dynamics of Drosophila suzukii in vineyard landscapes. Entomologia Generalis, 40(3), 285–295. https://doi.org/10.1127/entomologia/2020/0858
  • Delbac, L., Rusch, A., & Thiéry, D. (2020). Temporal dynamics of Drosophila suzukii in vineyard landscapes. Entomologia Generalis, 40(3), 285–295. https://doi.org/10.1127/entomologia/2020/0858
  • Asplen, M. K., Anfora, G., Biondi, A., … Desneux, N. (2015). Invasion biology of spotted wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii): A global perspective and future priorities. Journal of Pest Science, 88(3), 469–494. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-015-0681-z
  • Asplen, M. K., Anfora, G., Biondi, A., … Desneux, N. (2015). Invasion biology of spotted wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii): A global perspective and future priorities. Journal of Pest Science, 88(3), 469–494. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-015-0681-z
  • Rouzes, R., Delbac, L., Ravidat, M.-L., & Thiéry, D. (2012). First occurrence of Drosophila suzukii in the Sauternes vineyards. OENO One, 46(2), 145–147. https://doi.org/10.20870/oeno-one.2012.46.2.1513
  • Ioriatti, C., Guzzon, R., Anfora, G., … Walton, V. M. (2018). Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) contributes to the development of sour rot in grape. Journal of Economic Entomology, 111(1), 283–292. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/tox292
  • Weissinger, L., Arand, K., Bieler, E., … Mueller, C. (2021). Physical and chemical traits of grape varieties influence Drosophila suzukii preferences and performance. Frontiers in Plant Science, 12, 664636. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.664636
  • Delbac, L., Rusch, A., & Thiéry, D. (2020). Temporal dynamics of Drosophila suzukii in vineyard landscapes. Entomologia Generalis, 40(3), 285–295. https://doi.org/10.1127/entomologia/2020/0858
  • Tait, G., Mermer, S., Stockton, D., … Walton, V. M. (2021). Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae): A decade of research towards a sustainable Integrated Pest Management program. Journal of Economic Entomology, 114(5), 1950–1974. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toab158
  • Asplen, M. K., Anfora, G., Biondi, A., … Desneux, N. (2015). Invasion biology of spotted wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii): A global perspective and future priorities. Journal of Pest Science, 88(3), 469–494. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-015-0681-z
  • Tait, G., Mermer, S., Stockton, D., … Walton, V. M. (2021). Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae): A decade of research towards a sustainable Integrated Pest Management program. Journal of Economic Entomology, 114(5), 1950–1974. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toab158
  • Delbac, L., Rusch, A., Binet, D., & Thiéry, D. (2020). Seasonal variation of Drosophilidae communities in viticultural landscapes. Basic and Applied Ecology, 48, 83–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2020.08.002
  • Delbac, L., Rusch, A., & Thiéry, D. (2020). Temporal dynamics of Drosophila suzukii in vineyard landscapes. Entomologia Generalis, 40(3), 285–295. https://doi.org/10.1127/entomologia/2020/0858
  • Tait, G., Mermer, S., Stockton, D., … Walton, V. M. (2021). Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae): A decade of research towards a sustainable Integrated Pest Management program. Journal of Economic Entomology, 114(5), 1950–1974. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toab158
  • Tait, G., Mermer, S., Stockton, D., … Walton, V. M. (2021). Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae): A decade of research towards a sustainable Integrated Pest Management program. Journal of Economic Entomology, 114(5), 1950–1974. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toab158
  • Delbac, L., Rusch, A., & Thiéry, D. (2020). Temporal dynamics of Drosophila suzukii in vineyard landscapes. Entomologia Generalis, 40(3), 285–295. https://doi.org/10.1127/entomologia/2020/0858
  • Weissinger, L., Arand, K., Bieler, E., … Mueller, C. (2021). Physical and chemical traits of grape varieties influence Drosophila suzukii preferences and performance. Frontiers in Plant Science, 12, 664636. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.664636
  • Tait, G., Mermer, S., Stockton, D., … Walton, V. M. (2021). Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae): A decade of research towards a sustainable Integrated Pest Management program. Journal of Economic Entomology, 114(5), 1950–1974. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toab158
  • Tait, G., Mermer, S., Stockton, D., … Walton, V. M. (2021). Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae): A decade of research towards a sustainable Integrated Pest Management program. Journal of Economic Entomology, 114(5), 1950–1974. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toab158

Authors


Lionel Delbac

lionel.delbac@inrae.fr

Affiliation : SAVE, INRAE, Bordeaux Sciences Agro, Université de Bordeaux, Villenave d’Ornon, France

Country : France


Raphaël Rouzes

Affiliation : Entomo-Remedium, Paillet, France

Country : France

References

  • Loriatti, C., Guzzon, R., Anfora, G., … Walton, V. M. (2018). Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) contributes to the development of sour rot in grape. Journal of Economic Entomology, 111(1), 283–292. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/tox292
  • Weissinger, L., Arand, K., Bieler, E., … Mueller, C. (2021). Physical and chemical traits of grape varieties influence Drosophila suzukii preferences and performance. Frontiers in Plant Science, 12, 664636. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.664636
  • Delbac, L., Rusch, A., & Thiéry, D. (2020). Temporal dynamics of Drosophila suzukii in vineyard landscapes. Entomologia Generalis, 40(3), 285–295. https://doi.org/10.1127/entomologia/2020/0858
  • Asplen, M. K., Anfora, G., Biondi, A., … Desneux, N. (2015). Invasion biology of spotted wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii): A global perspective and future priorities. Journal of Pest Science, 88(3), 469–494. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-015-0681-z
  • Rouzes, R., Delbac, L., Ravidat, M.-L., & Thiéry, D. (2012). First occurrence of Drosophila suzukii in the Sauternes vineyards. OENO One, 46(2), 145–147. https://doi.org/10.20870/oeno-one.2012.46.2.1513
  • Tait, G., Mermer, S., Stockton, D., … Walton, V. M. (2021). Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae): A decade of research towards a sustainable Integrated Pest Management program. Journal of Economic Entomology, 114(5), 1950–1974. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toab158
  • Delbac, L., Rusch, A., Binet, D., & Thiéry, D. (2020). Seasonal variation of Drosophilidae communities in viticultural landscapes. Basic and Applied Ecology, 48, 83–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2020.08.002

Article statistics

Views: 468

Downloads

PDF: 28

XML: 2

Citations Altmetric