Viticulture

Sustaining wine identity through intra-varietal diversification Original language of the article: English.

To sustain local wine identity in uncertain climate outcomes, the study of intra-varietal diversity is important to reflect the adaptive potential of cultivated varieties. Findings highlight the strong phenotypic diversity of studied varieties and the importance of diversification to enhance climate change resilience. This study is the first step towards quantifying heat requirements of different clones and how they can provide adaptation solutions for winegrowers.

Introduction

Cultivated and shaped by human uses for many centuries, the grapevine has a rich genetic diversity with an estimated five to ten thousand varieties worldwide. Each variety has a climate suitability range, explaining the ecological fitness of varieties to a set of environmental conditions1. Climate change is questioning these climate niches2. Despite ongoing projects on genetic diversity among grapevine and rootstocks varieties for climate change adaptation, the study of intra-varietal diversity is equally important to reflect the adaptive potential of current cultivated varieties.

To sustain wine identity in uncertain climate outcomes, the aim of this ongoing study is to understand to what extent can intra-varietal diversity be a climate change adaptation solution. With a focus on early to moderate late ripening varieties, historical data was collected for agronomy observations of flowering and veraison for the studied clones (Table 1). Applying the GFV model3, climate data were compiled to calculate heat units necessary for each individual clone to reach phenological stages. Climate change projections were then integrated to observe how the individual clones are adapting to continuous regional warming. The goal was to evaluate the ecological suitability of studied varieties when considering its genetic diversity.

Table 1. Data description of the studied clones cultivated in the Loire Valley, Bordeaux and Alsace.


Region

Variety

Population

Site

Years

Loire Valley

Chenin

187 accessions

Montreuil-Bellay

97-99

Sauvignon blanc

113 accessions

Montreuil-Bellay

97-02

150 accessions

Montreuil-Bellay

14-15

Grolleau noir

207 accessions

Montreuil-Bellay

00-03

Bordeaux

Petit verdot

87 accessions

Mérignac

15-16

Alsace

Pinot

422 accessions

Bergheim

86-93

Riesling

433 accessions

Rorschwihr

82-91

Results

Study results showed a strong phenotypic variability within the same variety and how they translate into distinct heat requirements. For example, Table 2 illustrate the calculations on historical data for Chenin and Sauvignon in the Loire Valley. Chenin clones with an early onset in flowering required 1301 heat units, compared to almost 1400 heat units for clones with a delayed phenology. These variations in phenology and heat requirements become more important over the growing season as shown for veraison. For instance, Sauvignon clones with an early onset in flowering required 2480 heat units, compared to 2736 heat units for clones with a delayed veraison timing. When considering the established heat requirements for flowering and veraison, these values are close to the behaviour of early ripening clones according to study findings, displaying the interest to better understand the genetic diversity within the same variety. Most clones were selected in the second half of the 20th century, when early phenology was considered being an asset to achieve full ripeness. As a result, there is room for selecting other clones better adapted to warmer climatic conditions.

Table 2. Average day of the year (DOY) and heat requirements for individual clones of Chenin and of Sauvignon blanc to reach the phenological stages of flowering and veraison.


Grapevine

variety

Clone

Range

Flowering

DOY

Heat requirements

for flowering

Veraison

DOY

Heat requirements

for veraison

Chenin

blanc

Early

161

1301

228

2618

Mean

164

1343

235

2771

Late

168

1396

241

2895

Sauvignon

blanc

Early

165

1352

225

2480

Mean

167

1394

231

2660

Late

169

1422

234

2736

The ecoclimatic modelling approach seeks to understand the adaptive potential of the intra-varietal diversity in a changing climate. Considering the example of Chenin clones to reach flowering, initial findings show that in the recent past, the flowering date was around 25 June with a range of 6 days between the earliest and latest clones. According to the emission scenarios, clones will advance between 7 and 8 days by 2050 with a range of 5 days between the earliest and latest clones. A more substantial shift in flowering timing is expected by 2100 under the 4.5 and 8.5 RCP climate scenarios where the range between the early and late developing clones remain 5 days. For the timing of veraison, similar results are obtained. Considering Chenin, initial findings show that in the recent past, the timing of veraison was around 8 September with a range of 15 days between the earliest and latest clones (Figure 1). According to the emission scenarios, clones will advance between 11 and 13 days by 2050 with a range of 13 days between the earliest and latest clones. By 2100, veraison will advance by 22 days (RCP4.5) and by 32 days (RCP8.5) compared to 1971-2000. In both scenarios, the range between the early and late clones will be 11 days.

Figure 1. Box plots representing the temporal variability in veraison timing for Chenin blanc clones in the recent past and based on different climate scenarios for the near and far future. The range for box plots indicates the difference between the earliest and latest developing clone.

Conclusion

With the common objective to strengthen the resilience of the wine sector to climate change, the aim of this ongoing study was to understand to what extent can intra-varietal diversity be a climate change adaptation solution. Data was collected for flowering and veraison timing for the various clones of studied varieties. While model performances require improvements, this study is the first step towards quantifying heat requirements of different clones and how they can provide adaptation solutions for winegrowers to sustain local wine identity in a global changing climate. Findings highlight the strong phenotypic diversity and the importance of clonal diversification for climate change resilience. In addressing climate variability and change, promoting a limited proportion of mass and private clonal selections in vine propagation at local and community levels are equally important in addition to institutional clonal selections. These mass and private selections provide economic gains and the preservation of genetic diversity4. As the latter is an ongoing process through point mutations and epigenetic adaptations, perspective work is also to explore clonal data from a wide variety of geographic locations. This ongoing study is financed by the French National Research Agency (grant ANR-22-CE03-0003).

Notes

  • Neethling, E., Barbeau, G., Coulon-Leroy, C., Quénol, H., (2019). Spatial complexity and temporal dynamics in viticulture: a review of climate-driven scales. Agric. For. Meteorol. 276-277, 107618. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2019.107618
  • van Leeuwen, C, Destrac-Irvine, A., Dubernet, M., Duchêne, E., Gowdy, M., et al., (2019). An update on the impact of climate change in viticulture and potential adaptations. Agronomy, 9(9), 514. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9090514
  • Parker, A., Garcia de Cortázar, I., Chuine, I., Barbeau, G., Bois, B., et al., 2013. Classification of varieties for their timing of flowering and véraison using a modelling approach: a case study for the grapevine species Vitis vinifera L. Agric. For. Meteorol. 180, 249–264. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2013.06.005
  • Roby, JP, van Leeuwen, C, Gonçalves, E, Graça, A, and Martins, A. (2014). The preservation of genetic resources of the vine requires cohabitation between institutional clonal selection, mass selection and private clonal selection, in BIO Web of Conferences, Vol. 3.

Authors


Etienne Neethling

e.neethling@groupe-esa.com

Affiliation : USC 1422, GRAPPE INRAE, Ecole Supérieure d'Agricultures, 55 rue Rabelais, 49007 Angers, France

Country : South Africa


Eric Duchêne

Affiliation : UMR 1131 SVQV, University of Strasbourg-INRAE, 28 rue de Herrlisheim, 68000 Colmar, France

Country : France


Cornelis van Leeuwen

Affiliation : EGFV, Univ. Bordeaux, Bordeaux Sciences Agro, INRAE, ISVV, 210 chemin de Leysotte, F-33882 Villenave d’Ornon, France

Country : Netherlands


Elisa Marguerit

Affiliation : EGFV, Univ. Bordeaux, Bordeaux Sciences Agro, INRAE, ISVV, 210 chemin de Leysotte, F-33882 Villenave d’Ornon, France

Country : France


Etienne Goulet

Affiliation : IFV, Institut Français de la Vigne et du Vin, 42 rue Georges Morel, 49071 Beaucouzé, France

Country : France


Virginie Grondain

Affiliation : IFV, Institut Français de la Vigne et du Vin, 42 rue Georges Morel, 49071 Beaucouzé, France

Country : France

References

  • Neethling, E., Barbeau, G, Coulon-Leroy, C, Quénol, H, (2019). Spatial complexity and temporal dynamics in viticulture: a review of climate-driven scales. Agric. For. Meteorol. 276-277, 107618. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2019.107618
  • van Leeuwen, C, Destrac-Irvine, A, Dubernet, M, Duchêne, E, Gowdy, M, et al., (2019). An update on the impact of climate change in viticulture and potential adaptations. Agronomy, 9(9), 514. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9090514
  • Parker, A, Garcia de Cortázar, I, Chuine, I, Barbeau, G, Bois, B, et al., (2013). Classification of varieties for their timing of flowering and véraison using a modelling approach: a case study for the grapevine species Vitis vinifera L. Agric. For. Meteorol. 180, 249–264. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2013.06.005
  • Roby, JP, van Leeuwen, C, Gonçalves, E, Graça, A, and Martins, A. (2014). The preservation of genetic resources of the vine requires cohabitation between institutional clonal selection, mass selection and private clonal selection, in BIO Web of Conferences, Vol. 3.

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